Operating System (OS):
An operating system is a set of programs that manage all computer components and operations. A computer cannot do anything without the operating system. It must be installed on every computer otherwise, a computer will be useless. The user interacts with the computer through the operating system.
When a computer is turned on, the operating system runs and checks all the parts of the computer are working properly. It manages all operation on the computer after loading in memory. It acts as an interface between the user and hardware.
Popular Operating System
- MS Windows by Microsoft for PC’s and Mobiles
- MAC OS by Apple for PCs.
- Linux by Linus Torvalds for Desktops and Servers.
- Android by Google for Mobiles.
- iOS by Apple for Mobiles
Operating System performs following functions:
1. Booting: It is a process of starting or restarting the computer. OS starts the computer to work. It checks the computer and makes it ready to work.
2. Memory Management: It is also an important function of OS. The memory cannot manage without it. Different programs and data executed in memory at one time. If there is no operating system, the program may mix with each other. The system will not work properly.
3. Loading and Execution: A program is loaded into the memory before it can be executed. OS provide facility to load programs in memory and then execute it.
4. Data Security: Data is an important part of a computer system. The OS protects the data stored on the computer from illegal use, modification and deletion.
Read this article “What Is Data Security? How to Secure Data From Threats”
5. Disk Management: OS manages the disk space. It also manages the stored files and folders in the proper way. Read this related article: HOW TO CONVERT/CHANGE DYNAMIC DISK TO BASIC WITHOUT LOSING DATA
6. Process Management: CPU can perform one task at one time. If there are many tasks, OS decides which task should get the CPU.
7. Device Controlling: OS controls all devices attached to a computer. The hardware devices are controlled with the help of small software called device drive
A user interface is used to interact with a computer. It controls how the user enters data and instructions and how information appears on a screen. Different types of operating system on basis of user interface are Graphical User Interface (GUI) and Command Line.
Graphic User Interface
A type of user interface in which the user communicates with the operating system by using visual environment is called graphical user interface. It consists of windows, menus, icons, and pointers. The user can select commands from the menu and select icons by using pointing devices like a mouse. The mouse is most frequently using hardware component. The user easily opens many programs at once.
It increases the understanding of users. They easily understand by a user. It also useful because GUI appears icons, buttons, menus and user does not need to remember the command to open any files. It provides facilities of colors, font etc to make it more attractive.
Examples: Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.
A type of interface in which the user communicate with OS by typing commands with the keyboard is called Command-Line Operating System. Each program activates a program in the operating system.
The command line interface is difficult because the user has to remember commands. It provides more control on system files. It requires a keyboard to type commands. It can perform faster than GUI user.